Sql Server Faqs

1.What is commit?
A.An operation that saves all changes to databases, cubes, or dimensions made since the start of a transaction. A commit guarantees that all of the transaction's modifications are made a permanent part of the database, cube or dimension. A commit also frees resources, such as locks, used by the transaction.

2.What is clustered index?
A.An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table.

3.What is check constraint?
A.Defines which data values are acceptable in a column. You can apply CHECK constraints to multiple columns, and you can apply multiple CHECK constraints to a single column. When a table is dropped, CHECK constraints are also dropped.

4.What is constraint?
A.A property assigned to a table column that prevents certain types of invalid data values from being placed in the column. For example, a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint prevents you from inserting a value that is a duplicate of an existing value, a CHECK constraint prevents you from inserting a value that does not match a search condition, and NOT NULL prevents you from inserting a NULL value.

5.What is correlated subquery?
A.A subquery that references a column in the outer statement. The inner query is executed for each candidate row in the outer statement.

6.What is cube?
A.A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure defined by a set of dimensions and measures.

7.What is alias?
A.An alternative name for a table or column in expressions that is often used to shorten the name for subsequent reference in code, prevent possible ambiguous references, or provide a more descriptive name in the query output. An alias can also be an alternative name for a server.

8.What is data definition language(DDL)?
A.A language, usually part of a database management system, that is used to define all attributes and properties of a database, especially row layouts, column definitions, key columns (and sometimes keying methodology), file locations, and storage strategy.

9.What is data dictionary?
A.A set of system tables, stored in a catalog, that includes definitions of database structures and related information, such as permissions.

10.What is data manipulation language(DML)?
A.The subset of SQL statements used to retrieve and manipulate data.

11.What is database?
A.A collection of information, tables, and other objects organized and presented to serve a specific purpose, such as searching, sorting, and recombining data. Databases are stored in files.

12.What is data control language(DCL)?
A.The subset of SQL statements used to control permissions on database objects. Permissions are controlled using the GRANT and REVOKE statements.

13.What is default constraint?
A.A property defined for a table column that specifies a constant to be used as the default value for the column. If any subsequent INSERT or UPDATE statement specifies a value of NULL for the column, or does not specify a value for the column, the constant value defined in the DEFAULT constraint is placed in the column.

14.What is deny?
A.Removes a permission from a user account and prevents the account from gaining permission through membership in groups or roles within the permission.

15.What is equijoin?
A.A join in which the values in the columns being joined are compared for equality, and all columns are included in the results.

16.What is foreign key?
A.The column or combination of columns whose values match the primary key (PK) or unique key in the same or another table. Also called the referencing key.

17.What is grant?
A.Applies permissions to a user account, which allows the account to perform an activity or work with data.

18.What is identity column?
A.A column in a table that has been assigned the identity property. The identity property generates unique numbers.

19.What is index?
A.In a relational database, a database object that provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes can also enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and nonclustered indexes. The primary key of a table is automatically indexed. In full-text search, a full-text index stores information about significant words and their location within a given column.

20.What is inner join?
A.An operation that retrieves rows from multiple source tables by comparing the values from columns shared between the source tables. An inner join excludes rows from a source table that have no matching rows in the other source tables.

21.What is join?
A.As a verb, to combine the contents of two or more tables and produce a result set that incorporates rows and columns from each table. Tables are typically joined using data that they have in common. As a noun, the process or result of joining tables, as in the term "inner join" to indicate a particular method of joining tables.

22.What is left outer join?
A.A type of outer join in which all rows from the left-most table in the JOIN clause are included. When rows in the left table are not matched by rows in the right table, all result set columns that come from the right table are assigned a value of NULL.

23.What are logical operators?
A.The operators AND, OR, and NOT. Used to connect search conditions in WHERE clauses.

24.What is nonclustered index?
A.An index in which the logical order of the index is different than the physical, stored order of the rows on disk.

25.What is outer join?
A.A join that includes all the rows from the joined tables that have met the search conditions, even rows from one table for which there is no matching row in the other join table. For result set rows returned when a row in one table is not matched by a row from the other table, a value of NULL is supplied for all result set columns that are resolved to the table that had the missing row.

26.What is primary key?
A.A column or set of columns that uniquely identify all the rows in a table. Primary keys do not allow null values. No two rows can have the same primary key value; therefore, a primary key value always uniquely identifies a single row. More than one key can uniquely identify rows in a table, each of these keys is called a candidate key. Only one candidate can be chosen as the primary key of a table; all other candidate keys are known as alternate keys. Although tables are not required to have primary keys, it is good practice to define them. In a normalized table, all of the data values in each row are fully dependent on the primary key.

27.What is relational database management system(RDBMS)?
A.A system that organizes data into related rows and columns. SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS).

28.What is right outer join?
A.A type of outer join in which all rows in the right-most table in the JOIN clause are included. When rows in the right table are not matched in the left table, all result set columns that come from the left table are assigned a value of NULL.

29.What is rollback?
A.To remove the updates performed by one or more partially completed transactions. Rollbacks are required to restore the integrity of a database after an application, database, or system failure.

30.What is savepoint?
A.A marker that allows an application to roll back part of a transaction if a minor error is encountered. The application must still commit or roll back the full transaction when it is complete.

31.What is self join?
A.A join in which records from a table are combined with other records from the same table when there are matching values in the joined fields. A self-join can be an inner join or an outer join. In database diagrams, a self-join is called a reflexive relationship.

32.What are store procedures?
A.A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. SQL Server supplies stored procedures for managing SQL Server and displaying information about databases and users. SQL Server-supplied stored procedures are called system stored procedures.

33.What is subquery?
A.A SELECT statement nested inside another SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement, or inside another subquery.

34.What is transaction?
A.A group of database operations combined into a logical unit of work that is either wholly committed or rolled back. A transaction is atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable.

35.What is trigger?
A.A stored procedure that executes when data in a specified table is modified. Triggers are often created to enforce referential integrity or consistency among logically related data in different tables.

36.What is unique index?
A.An index in which no two rows are permitted to have the same index value, thus prohibiting duplicate index or key values. The system checks for duplicate key values when the index is created and checks each time data is added with an INSERT or UPDATE statement.

37.What are UNIQUE constraints?
A.Constraints that enforce entity integrity on a nonprimary key. UNIQUE constraints ensure that no duplicate values are entered and that an index is created to enhance performance.

38.What is view?
A.A database object that can be referenced the same way as a table in SQL statements. Views are defined using a SELECT statement and are analogous to an object that contains the result set of this statement.

39.What is Structured Query Language(SQL)?
A.A language used to insert, retrieve, modify, and delete data in a relational database. SQL also contains statements for defining and administering the objects in a database. SQL is the language supported by most relational databases, and is the subject of standards published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). SQL Server 2000 uses a version of the SQL language called Transact-SQL.

40.What is revoke?
A.Removes a previously granted or denied permission from a user account, role, or group in the current database.

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Load Runner Faqs

LoadRunner interview questions

1.What is load testing?
Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods.

2.What is Performance testing?
Timing for both read and update transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.

3.Explain the Load testing process?
Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing objectives.

Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions.

Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us.

Step 4: Running the scenario. We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.

Step 5: Monitoring the scenario. We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors.

Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under different loads. We use LoadRunner.s graphs and reports to analyze the application.s performance.

4.When do you do load and performance Testing?
We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a typical application-testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance testing.

5.What are the components of LoadRunner?
The components of LoadRunner are The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.

6.What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script?
The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

7.What Component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in multi user mode?
The Controller component is used to playback the script in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a vuser script is executed by a number of vusers in a group.

8.What is a rendezvous point?
You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

9. What is a scenario?
A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.

10.Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script?
We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server; Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script.

11.Why do you create parameters?
Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.

12.What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?
Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

13.How do you find out where correlation is required? Give few examples from your projects?
Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be correlated. Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be correlated. In my project, there was a unique id developed for each customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.

14.Where do you set automatic correlation options?
Automatic correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

15.What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script? -
Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

16.When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs?
Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you select
Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled Extended Log Option: Select
extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the Extended log options.

17.How do you debug a LoadRunner script?
VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.

19.How do you write user defined functions in LR? Give me few functions you wrote in your previous project?
Before we create the User Defined functions we need to create the external
library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec (dllexport) char* (char*, char*)Examples of user defined functions are as follows:GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.

18.What are the changes you can make in run-time settings?
The Run Time Settings that we make are: a) Pacing - It has iteration count. b) Log - Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and c) Extended Think Time - In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time. d) General - Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.

19.Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing?
We set Iterations in the Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time settings, Pacing tab, set number of iterations.

20.How do you perform functional testing under load?
Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.

21.What is Ramp up? How do you set this?
This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be
specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’

22.What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?
VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single
generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of
Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.

23.If you want to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do that?
The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned the status "Stopped". For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the .Continue on error. option in Run-Time Settings.

24.What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput?
The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

25.Explain the Configuration of your systems?
The configuration of our systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc. This system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.

26.How do you identify the performance bottlenecks?
Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors. These monitors might be application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.

27.If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the problem?
The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.

28.How did you find web server related issues?
Using Web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that
occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the number of downloaded pages per second.

29.How did you find database related issues?
By running .Database. monitor and help of .Data Resource Graph. we can find database related issues. E.g. You can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and than you can see database related issues


30.What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph?
Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph show.s the current graph.s value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged. Correlate Graph: Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graph.s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graph.s Y-axis.

31.How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria?
Load test is planned to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.

32.What does vuser_init action contain?
Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.

33.What does vuser_end action contain?
Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.

34.What is think time? How do you change the threshold?
Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the data before responding. This delay is known as the think time. Changing the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the Recording options of the Vugen.

35.What is the difference between standard log and extended log?
The standard log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution. Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.

36.Explain the following functions:
lr_debug_message - The lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the output log when the specified message class is set. lr_output_message - The lr_output_message function sends notifications to the Controller Output window and the Vuser log file. lr_error_message - The lr_error_message function sends an error message to the LoadRunner Output window. lrd_stmt - The lrd_stmt function associates a character string (usually a SQL statement) with a cursor. This function sets a SQL statement to be processed. lrd_fetch - The lrd_fetch function fetches the next row from the result set.

37.Throughput - If the throughput scales upward as time progresses and the number of Vusers increase, this indicates that the bandwidth is sufficient. If the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers increased, it would
be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume of
data delivered.

38.Types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario
Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:
The number of concurrent Vusers
The number of hits per second
The number of transactions per second
The number of pages per minute
The transaction response time that you want your scenario

39.Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks): In Running Vuser graph correlated with the response time graph you can see that as the number of Vusers increases, the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually increases. In other words, the average response time steadily increases as the load
increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increase in the average response
time. We say that the test broke the server. That is the mean time before failure (MTBF). The response time clearly began to degrade when there were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.

40.What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?
Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

41.Where do you set automatic correlation options?
Automatic correlation from web point of view, can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database, can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

42.What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script?
Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

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Descriptive Programming for Yahoo Login Page

Descriptive Programming for Yahoo Login Page

SystemUtil.Run"iexplore","http://www.yahoomail.com"
Set g=Browser("name:=Yahoo.*").Page("title:=Yahoo.*")
g.WebEdit("name:=login").Set "aaa"
g.WebEdit("name:=passwd").SetSecure "bbb"
g.WebButton("name:=Sign In").Click
g.Link("name:=Inbox.*",
"html id:=WelcomeInboxFolderLink").Click
g.Link("name:=Sign Out").Click

SystemUtil.Run"iexplore","http://www.yahoomail.com" statement opens yahoo login page
aaa=username
bbb=password

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Resources for Testing Faqs

List of resources for Testing Faqs check it
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If u find any other useful faq sites post it in comments.

QTPScript for connecting to database
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Unix Commands

cat - display or concatenate files
cd - change directory
chmod - change the permissions on a file or directory
cp - copy a file
date - display the current date and time
diff - display differences between text files
file - determine the type of a file
find - find files of a specified name or type
ftp - file transfer program
grep - searches files for a specified string or expression
gzip - compress a file
help - display information about bash builtin commands
info - read online documentation
kill - kill a process
lpr - print out a file
ls - list names of files in a directory
man - display an on-line manual page
mkdir - make a directory
more - scan through a text file page by page
mv - move or rename files or directories
nice - change the priority at which a job is being run
passwd - change your password
ps - list processes
pwd - display the name of your current directory
quota - disk quota and usage
rm - remove files or directories
rmdir - remove a directory
sort - sort and collate lines
slogin - secure remote login program
telnet - remote login program

Fun and Knowledge: Beautiful Flowers

Fun and Knowledge: Beautiful Flowers

Manual Testing Faqs

1. What is Software Testing?
A. Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results,The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions.
Testing is a process of executing a program with the intend of finding the errors.

2. What is the Purpose of Testing?
A. The purpose of testing is
1· To uncover hidden errors
2· To achieve the maximum usability of the system
3· To Demonstrate expected performance of the system

3. What types of testing do testers perform?
A. Two types of testing 1.White Box Testing 2.Black Box Testing.

4. What is the Outcome of Testing?
A. The outcome of testing will be a stable application which meets the customer Req's.

5. What kind of testing have you done?
A. Usability,Functionality,System testing,regression testing,UAT
(it depends on the person).

6. What is the need for testing?
A. The Primary need is to match requirements get satisfied with the functionality
and also to answer two questions
1· Whether the system is doing what it supposes to do?
2· Whether the system is not performing what it is not suppose to do?

7. What are the entry criteria for Functionality and Performance testing?
A. Entry criteria for Functionality testing is Functional Specification /BRS (CRS)/User Manual.An integrated application, Stable for testing.

Entry criteria for Performance testing is successfully of functional testing,once all the requirements related to functional are covered and tested, and approved or validated.

8. Why do you go for White box testing, when Black box testing is available?
A. A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) aspects and also functional (technical)aspects is objectives of black box testing. Here loops, structures, arrays, conditions,files, etc are very micro level but they arc Basement for any application, So White box takes these things in Macro level and test these things

Even though Black box testing is available,we should go for White box testing also,to check the correctness of code and for integrating the modules.

9.What are the entry criteria for Automation testing?
A. Application should be stable. Clear Design and Flow of the application is needed.

10.When to start and Stop Testing?
A. This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex,and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done.
Common factors in deciding when to stop are:

Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.)
Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
Test budget depleted
Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point
Bug rate falls below a certain level
Beta or alpha testing period ends

11.What is Quality?
A. It ensures that software is a Bug free,delivered in time,with in budget,meets customer requirements and maintainable.Quality standards are different in various areas like accounting department might define quality in terms of Profit.

12.What is Baseline document?
A. The review and approved document is called as baseline document (i.e)Test plan,SRS.

13.What is verification?
A. To check whether we are developing the right product according to the customer
requirements r not.It is a static process.

14.What is validation?
A. To check whether we have developed the product according to the customer requirements r not.It is a Dynamic process.

15.What is quality assurance?
A. Quality Assurance measures the quality of processes used to create a quality product.
1.It is a system of management activities.
2.It is a preventive process.
3.It applies for entire life cycle.
4.Deals with Proces.

16.What is quality control?
A. Quality control measures the quality of a product
1.It is a specific part of the QA procedure.
2.It is a corrective process.
3.It applies for particular product.
4.Deals with the product.

17.What is SDLC and TDLC?
A. Software development life cycle(SDLC) is life cycle of a project from starting to ending of the project.
1.Requiremnts Specification. 2.Analysis
3.Design 4.Coding
5.Testing 6.User acceptance test(UAT)
7.Maintainance

Software Test Life Cycle(STLC) is a life cycle of the testing process.
1.Requiremnts Specification. 2.Planning
3.Test case Design. 4.Execution
5.Bug Reporting. 6.Maintainance

18.What are the Qualities of a Tester?
A. Tester should have qualities like
1.ability to break 2.paitence 3.communication
4.Presentation 5.team work. 6.negative thinking with good judgment skills

19.What are the various levels of testing?
A. The various levels of testing like
1· Ad - Hoc testing
2. Sanity Test
3. Regression Testing
4. Functional testing
5· Web Testing

20.After completing testing, what would you deliver to the client?
A. It is depend upon what you have specified in the test plan document.
the contents delivers to the clients is nothing but Test Deliverables.
1.Test plan document 2.Master test case document 3.Test summary Report.
4.Defect Reports.

21.What is a Test Bed?
A. Test bed means under what test environment(Hardware,software set up) the
application will run smoothly.

22.Why do you go for Test Bed?
A. We will prepare test bed bcoz first we need to identify under which
environment (Hardware,software) the application will run smoothly,then
only we can run the application smoothly without any intereptions.

23.What is Severity and Priority and who will decide what?
A. Severity and priority will be assigned for a particular bug to know the importance of the bug.
Severity:How sevierly the bug is effecting the application.
Priority:Informing to the developer which bug to be fix first.

24.Can Automation testing replace manual testing? If it so, how?
A. Yes,it can be done manually when the project is small,having more time.
we can test with minimum number of users.

25.What is a test case?
A. A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.

26.What is a test condition?
A. The condition required to test a feature.(pre condition)

27.What is the test script?
A. Test script is the script which is generated by an automation tool while recording a application features.

28.What is the test data?
A. Test data means the input data(valid,invalid data) giving to check the feature
of an application is working correctly.

29.What is the difference between Re-testing and Regression testing?
A Re-testing:Executing the same test case by giving the no. of inputs on same build.
Regression testing:Executing the same test case on a modified build.

30.What are the different types of testing techniques?
A. 1.white Box testing 2.Black Box testing.

31.What are the different types of test case techniques?
A. 1.Equilance Partition. 2.Boundary Value Analysis. 3.Error guesing.

32.What ifs the difference between defect, error, bug?
A. Defect:While executing the test case if u found any mismatch,the u will report
it to the development team,that is called defect.

Bug:Once the developer accepts your defect,the it is called as a bug.

error:it may be program error or syntax error.

33.What is the difference between quality and testing?
A. QA is more a preventive thing, ensuring quality in the company and therefore
the product rather than just testing the product for software bugs?

TESTING means "quality control"
Quality control measures the quality of a product
Quality Assurance measures the quality of processes used to create a
quality product.

34.What is the difference between White & Black Box Testing?
A. White Box Testing:Based on the knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.

Black Box testing:- not based on any knowledge of internal design or code.
Tests are based on requirements and functionality.

35.What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control?
A.
Quality Assurance measures the quality of processes used to create a
quality product.
Quality control measures the quality of the product.

36.What is the difference between Testing and debugging?
A. The Purpose of testing is to show the program has bugs.
The Purpose of debugging is find the error/ misconception that led to failure and implement program changes that correct the error.

37.What is the difference between bug and defect?
A. Defect:While executing the test case if u found any mismatch,the u will report
it to the development team,that is called defect.

Bug:Once the developer accepts your defect,the it is called as a bug.

38.What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing?
A. Unit Testing:It is a testing activity typically done by the developers not by testers,as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code.

integration testing:testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. The 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications,client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

39. What is the diff between Volume & Load?
A. Load,stress testing comes under performance testing.
Load Testing:To test the performance of the application by gradually
increasing the user loads.

Stress Testing:TO test the performance of the application and to find the server break down or where the server crashes.

Volume Testing:To test whether it can able to send max data according to client req's.

40. What is the Diff between Two Tier & Three tier Architecture?
A. Two Tier Architecture:It is nothing but client server Architecture,where client will hit request directly to server and client will get response directly from server.

Three tier Architecture:It is nothing but Web Based application,here in between client and server middle ware will be there,if client hits a request it will go to the middle ware and middle ware will send to server and vise-versa.

41. What is the diff between Integration & System Testing?
A. integration testing:testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. The 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications,client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.


System Testing:system testing will conducted on the entire system to check whether
it is meeting the customer requirements r not.

42. What is the diff between walk through and inspection?
A. walk through:A 'walk through' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required

inspection:Inspection is an formal meeting,here every thing discussed will be documented such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing,The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report.

43. What is the Diff between static and dynamic?
A. Static Testing:Test activities that are performed without running the software is called Static Testing,it includes inspections,walk throughs and desk checks.

dynamic testing:Test activities that are performed by running the software is called dynamic Testing.

44. What is the diff between alpha testing and beta testing?
A. Alpha Testing:alpha testing will be performed by client in our environment with dummy data,In this phase some major bugs can be allowed,later which will be solved by our development team.

beta testing:beta testing will be performed by client in his environment with real data,In this phase no bugs can be allowed.

45.What is Recovery testing?
A.testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.

QTP Faqs
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Descriptive Programming for Yahoo Login Page

QTP FAQS

1) What is QTP ?

A) QuickTest is a graphical interface record-playback automation tool. It is able to work with any web, java or windows client application. Quick Test enables you to test standard web objects and ActiveX controls. In addition to these environments, QuickTest Professional also enables you to test Java applets and applications and multimedia objects on Applications as well as standard Windows applications, Visual Basic 6 applications and .NET framework applications...

2) Explain QTP Testing process ?

A) The QuickTest testing process consists of 6 main phases:

Create your test plan
Prior to automating there should be a detailed description of the test including the exact steps to follow, data to be input, and all items to be verified by the test. The verification information should include both data validations and existence or state verifications of objects in the application.

Recording a session on your application
As you navigate through your application, QuickTest graphically displays each step you perform in the form of a collapsible icon-based test tree. A step is any user action that causes or makes a change in your site, such as clicking a link or image, or entering data in a form.

Enhancing your test
Inserting checkpoints into your test lets you search for a specific value of a page, object or text string, which helps you identify whether or not your application is functioning correctly.

NOTE: Checkpoints can be added to a test as you record it or after the fact via the Active Screen. It is much easier and faster to add the checkpoints during the recording process.

Broadening the scope of your test by replacing fixed values with parameters lets you check how your application performs the same operations with multiple sets of data.
Adding logic and conditional statements to your test enables you to add sophisticated checks to your test.

Debugging your test
If changes were made to the script, you need to debug it to check that it operates smoothly and without interruption.

Running your test on a new version of your application
You run a test to check the behavior of your application. While running, QuickTest connects to your application and performs each step in your test.

Analyzing the test results
You examine the test results to pinpoint defects in your application.

Reporting defects
As you encounter failures in the application when analyzing test results, you will create defect reports in Defect Reporting Tool.

3) Explain the QTP Tool interface.

A)It contains the following key elements:

Title bar, displaying the name of the currently open test
Menu bar, displaying menus of QuickTest commands
File toolbar, containing buttons to assist you in managing tests
Test toolbar, containing buttons used while creating and maintaining tests
Debug toolbar, containing buttons used while debugging tests.

Note: The Debug toolbar is not displayed when you open QuickTest for the first time. You can display the Debug toolbar by choosing View > Toolbars > Debug. Note that this tutorial does not describe how to debug a test.

Action toolbar, containing buttons and a list of actions, enabling you to view the details of an individual action or the entire test flow.

Note: The Action toolbar is not displayed when you open QuickTest for the first time. You can display the Action toolbar by choosing View > Toolbars > Action. If you insert a reusable or external action in a test, the Action toolbar is displayed automatically.

Test pane, containing two tabs to view your test-the Tree View and the Expert View
Test Details pane, containing the Active Screen

Data Table, containing two tabs, Global and Action, to assist you in parameterizing your test

Debug Viewer pane, containing three tabs to assist you in debugging your test-Watch Expressions, Variables, and Command. (The Debug Viewer pane can be opened only when a test run pauses at a breakpoint.)

Status bar, displaying the status of the test.

4) What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?

A) QuickTest’s Keyword Driven approach, test automation experts
have full access to the underlying test and object properties, via an
integrated scripting and debugging environment that is round-trip
synchronized with the Keyword View.
Advanced testers can view and edit their tests in the Expert View,
which reveals the underlying industry-standard VBScript that
QuickTest Professional automatically generates. Any changes
made in the Expert View are automatically synchronized with the
Keyword View.

5) Explain about the Test Fusion Report of QTP ?

A) Once a tester has run a test, a TestFusion report displays all
aspects of the test run: a high-level results overview, an expandable
Tree View of the test specifying exactly where application failures
occurred, the test data used, application screen shots for every step
that highlight any discrepancies, and detailed explanations of each
checkpoint pass and failure. By combining TestFusion reports with
QuickTest Professional, you can share reports across an entire QA
and development team.

6) To which environments does QTP supports ?

A) QuickTest Professional supports functional testing of all enterprise
environments, including Windows, Web, ..NET, Java/J2EE, SAP,
Siebel, Oracle, PeopleSoft, Visual Basic, ActiveX, mainframe
terminal emulators, and Web services.

7) How QTP recognizes Objects in AUT?

A) QuickTest stores the definitions for application objects in a file called the Object Repository. As you record your test, QuickTest will add an entry for each item you interact with. Each Object Repository entry will be identified by a logical name (determined automatically by QuickTest), and will contain a set of properties (type, name, etc) that uniquely identify each object.
Each line in the QuickTest script will contain a reference to the object that you interacted with, a call to the appropriate method (set, click, check) and any parameters for that method (such as the value for a call to the set method). The references to objects in the script will all be identified by the logical name, rather than any physical, descriptive properties.

8) What are the types of Object Repositorys in QTP?

A) QuickTest has two types of object repositories for storing object information: shared object repositories and action object repositories. You can choose which type of object repository you want to use as the default type for new tests, and you can change the default as necessary for each new test.

The object repository per-action mode is the default setting. In this mode, QuickTest automatically creates an object repository file for each action in your test so that you can create and run tests without creating, choosing, or modifying object repository files. However, if you do modify values in an action object repository, your changes do not have any effect on other actions. Therefore, if the same test object exists in more than one action and you modify an object's property values in one action, you may need to make the same change in every action (and any test) containing the object.

9) Explain the check points in QTP?

A)A checkpoint verifies that expected information is displayed in a Application while the test is running. You can add eight types of checkpoints to your test for standard web objects using QTP.

A page checkpoint checks the characteristics of a Application
A text checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate place on a Application.
An object checkpoint (Standard) checks the values of an object on a Application.
An image checkpoint checks the values of an image on a Application.
A table checkpoint checks information within a table on a Application
An Accessiblity checkpoint checks the web page for Section 508 compliance.
An XML checkpoint checks the contents of individual XML data files or XML documents that are part of your Web application.
A database checkpoint checks the contents of databases accessed by your web site

10) In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP.

A) We can add checkpoints while recording the application or we can add after recording is completed using Active screen (Note : To perform the second one The Active screen must be enabled while recording).

11) How does QTP identifes the object in the application.

A) QTP identifies the object in the application by LogicalName and Class.
For example :
The Edit box is identified by
Logical Name : PSOPTIONS_BSE_TIME20
Class: WebEdit

12) If an application name is changes frequently i.e while recording it has name “Window1” and then while running its “Windows2” in this case how does QTP handles?

A)QTP handles those situations using “Regular Expressions”.

13) What is Parameterizing Tests?

A) When you test your application, you may want to check how it performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. For example, suppose you want to check how your application responds to ten separate sets of data. You could record ten separate tests, each with its own set of data. Alternatively, you can create a parameterized test that runs ten times: each time the test runs, it uses a different set of data.


14) What is test object model in QTP ?

A) The test object model is a large set of object types or classes that QuickTest
uses to represent the objects in your application. Each test object class has a
list of properties that can uniquely identify objects of that class and a set of
relevant methods that QuickTest can record for it.
A test object is an object that QuickTest creates in the test or component to
represent the actual object in your application. QuickTest stores information
about the object that will help it identify and check the object during the
run session.
A run-time object is the actual object in your Web site or application on
which methods are performed during the run session.

15) What is Object Spy in QTP?

A)Using the Object Spy, you can view the properties of any object in an open
application. You use the Object Spy pointer to point to an object. The Object
Spy displays the selected object’s hierarchy tree and its properties and values
in the Properties tab of the Object Spy dialog box.

16) What is the Diff between Image check-point and Bit map Check point?

A) Image checkpoints enable you to check the properties of a Web image.
You can check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While
creating a test or component, you specify the area you want to check by
selecting an object. You can check an entire object or any area within an
object. QuickTest captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a
checkpoint in the test or component. You can also choose to save only the
selected area of the object with your test or component in order to save disk Space
For example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city
the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the
new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in
the map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms
in correctly.
You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing environments
(as long as the appropriate add-ins are loaded).
Note: The results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as
operating system, screen resolution, and color settings.

17) How many ways we can parameterize data in QTP ?

A) There are four types of parameters:
Test, action or component parameters enable you to use values passed
from your test or component, or values from other actions in your test.

Data Table parameters enable you to create a data-driven test (or action)
that runs several times using the data you supply. In each repetition, or
iteration, QuickTest uses a different value from the Data Table.

Environment variable parameters enable you to use variable values from
other sources during the run session. These may be values you supply, or
values that QuickTest generates for you based on conditions and options
you choose.

Random number parameters enable you to insert random numbers as
values in your test or component. For example, to check how your
application handles small and large ticket orders, you can have QuickTest
generate a random number and insert it in a number of tickets edit field.

18.If i give some thousand tests to execute in 2 days what do u do?

Ans : Adhoc testing is done. It Covers the least basic functionalities to verify that the system is working fine.

19. How to Import data from a ".xls" file to Data table during Runtime.

Ans : Datatable.Import "...XLS file name..."

DataTable.ImportSheet(FileName, SheetSource, SheetDest)
DataTable.ImportSheet "C:\name.xls" ,1 ,"name"


20.How to export data present in Datatable to an ".xls" file?

Ans : DataTable.Export "....xls file name..."

21. 3 differences between QTP & Winrunner?

Ans :
(a) QTP is object bases Scripting ( VBS) where Winrunner is TSL (C based) Scripting.
(b) QTP supports ".NET" application Automation not available in Winrunner
(c) QTP has "Active Screen" support which captures the application, not available in WR.
(d) QTP has "Data Table" to store script values , variables which WR does not have.
(e) Using a “point and click” capability you can easily interface with objects, their
definitions and create checkpoints after having recorded a script – without having
to navigate back to that location in your application like you have to with WinRunner.
This greatly speeds up script development.

22. how to add a runtime parameter to a datasheet?

Ans:
DataTable.LocalSheet

The following example uses the LocalSheet property to return the local sheet of
the run-time Data Table in order to add a parameter (column) to it.

MyParam=DataTable.LocalSheet.AddParameter("Time", "5:45")

23 .Object Repositories types, Which & when to use?

Deciding Which Object Repository Mode to Choose
To choose the default object repository mode and the appropriate object repository mode for each test, you need to understand the differences between the two modes.

In general, the object repository per-action mode is easiest to use when you are creating simple record and run tests, especially under the following conditions:

You have only one, or very few, tests that correspond to a given application, interface, or set of objects.
You do not expect to frequently modify test object properties.
You generally create single-action tests.
Conversely, the shared object repository mode is generally the preferred mode when:

You have several tests that test elements of the same application, interface, or set of objects.
You expect the object properties in your application to change from time to time and/or you regularly need to update or modify test object properties.
You often work with multi-action tests and regularly use the Insert Copy of Action and Insert Call to Action options.


24.How to execute a WinRunner Script in QTP?

Ans : (a) TSLTest.RunTest TestPath, TestSet [, Parameters ] --> Used in QTP , used for backward compatibility

Parameters : The test set within Quality Center, in which test runs are stored. Note that this argument is relevant only when working with a test in a Quality Center project. When the test is not saved in Quality Center, this parameter is ignored.

e.g : TSLTest.RunTest "D:\test1", ""


(b)
TSLTest.RunTestEx TestPath, RunMinimized, CloseApp [, Parameters ]

TSLTest.RunTestEx "C:\WinRunner\Tests\basic_flight", TRUE, FALSE, "MyValue"

CloseApp : Indicates whether to close the WinRunner application when the WinRunner test run ends.
Parameters : Up to 15 WinRunner function argument

25. How to handle Run-time errors?

(a) On Error Resume Next : causes execution to continue with the statement immediately following the statement that caused the run-time error, or with the statement immediately following the most recent call out of the procedure containing the On Error Resume Next statement. This allows execution to continue despite a run-time error. You can then build the error-handling routine inline within the procedure.
Using "Err" object msgbox "Error no: " & " " & Err.Number & " " & Err.description & " " & Err.Source & Err.HelpContext

26.How to change the run-time value of a property for an object?

Ans : SetTOProperty changes the property values used to identify an object during the test run.
Only properties that are included in the test object description can be set

27. How to retrieve the property of an object?

Ans : using "GetRoProperty".

28. How to open any application during Scripting?

Ans : SystemUtil , object used to open and close applications and processes during a run session.

(a) A SystemUtil.Run statement is automatically added to your test when you run an application from the Start menu or the Run dialog box while recording a test

E.g : SystemUtil.Run "Notepad.exe"
SystemUtil.CloseDescendentProcesses ( Closes all the processes opened by QTP )

29. Types of properties that Quick Test learns while recording?

Ans : (a) Mandatory (b) Assistive .

In addition to recording the mandatory and assistive properties specified in the Object Identification dialog box, QuickTest can also record a backup ordinal identifier for each test object. The ordinal identifier assigns the object a numerical value that indicates its order relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description (objects that have the same values for all properties specified in the mandatory and assistive property lists). This ordered value enables QuickTest to create a unique description when the mandatory and assistive properties are not sufficient to do so.

30. What is the extension of script and object repository files?

Ans : Object Repository : .tsr , Script : .mts, Excel : Default.xls

31. How to supress warnings from the "Test results page"?

Ans : From the Test results Viewer "Tools > Filters > Warnings"...must be "Unchecked".

32. How to covert a String to an integer?

Ans : CInt()---> a conversion function available.

33.Which keyword used for Normal Recording?

Ans:F3

34.Which keyword used for run the test script?

Ans:F5

35.Which keyword used for stop the recording?

Ans:F4

check this blog regularly for more testing faqs and articles.

Manual Faqs
Testing Material
Load Runner Faqs
Sql Server Faqs
Testing Faqs Resources
Descriptive Programming for Yahoo Login Page

QTP Script for connecting to database

This post will give u steps(script)to connect to database using MS Access.

Option Explicit
Dim con,rs
Set con=createobject("adodb.connection")
Set rs=createobject("adodb.recordset")
con.provider="microsoft.jet.oledb.4.0"
con.open"d:\testdata.mdb"
rs.open"select*from emp",con
Do while not rs.eof
VbWindow("Form1").VbEdit("val1").Set rs.fields("v1")
VbWindow("Form1").VbEdit("val2").Set rs.fields("v2")
VbWindow("Form1").VbButton("ADD").Click
rs.movenext
Loop

Database we are using here is MS Access.before running this script create a table in MS Acess.

In the above script i used table called "emp" and column names as "v1" and "v2".

"d:\testdata.mdb" is path of the table which we created.

Main use of this application is to use testdata of table(which is in database) in the application.

Qtp script for connecting to sql server and oracle

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